Showing posts with label WORLD OF POLITICAL. Show all posts
Showing posts with label WORLD OF POLITICAL. Show all posts

MEANING OF CONSTITUTION TERMS SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC AND REPUBLIC

MEANING, CONSTITUTION, SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC

Meaning of Constitution term SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC and REPUBLIC was the constitution historical underpinnings, The preamble of the Constitution is the heart and soul of the
Constitution. The preamble can be referred to as the preface which highlights the entire Constitution.  As originally enacted the preamble described the state as a "sovereign democratic republic", to which the terms "Secular" and "Socialist" 
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens
 JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
 LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
 EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
 FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
 IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this  26th day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
Sovereignty means the independent authority of a State. It means that it has the power to legislate on any subject; and that it is not subject to the control of any other State or external power. the word ‘sovereign’ is taken from article 5 of the constitution of Ireland. Sovereignty has two aspects- external and internal.
External sovereignty means the independence of a country of the will of other country in international law.
Internal sovereignty means the relationship between the states and the individuals within its territory. Internal sovereignty relates to internal and domestic affairs, and is divided into four organs, namely, the executive, the legislature, the judiciary and the administrative.
 The term socialist means to democratic socialism, i.e. achievement of socialist goals through democratic, evolutionary and non-violent means. through distributive justice, not concentrated in the hands of few, and that the government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities.
By the 42nd Amendment in 1976, the term "Secular" was also incorporated in the Preamble. the term "Secular" means There is no difference of religion i.e. all religion are equally respected and there is no state religion. All the citizens of India are allowed to profess, practice and propagate any religion.
The term Democratic means that The people of India elect their governments by a system of universal adult franchise, known as "one man one vote". Every citizen of India 18 years of age and above and not debarred by law is entitled to vote. The word 'democratic' not only refers to political but also to social & economic democracy.
The Word Republic means the head of state is elected and not a hereditary monarch. the republic is an entity in which the head of state is elected, directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure. Thus, India has a President who is elected and has a fixed term of office for the five years.
India seeks social, economic and political justice to ensure equality to its citizens.
Social Justice means the absence of socially privileged classes in the society and no discrimination against any citizen on the basis of caste, creed, color, religion, gender or place of birth. India eliminating all forms of exploitations from the society.
Economic Justice means no discrimination between man and woman on the basis of income, wealth and economic status. equitable distribution of wealth, economic equality, the end of monopolistic control over means of production and distribution, decentralisation of economic resources, and the securing of adequate opportunities to all for earning their living.
Political Justice means equal, free and fair opportunities for the all indian citizen to participate in the political process. It grant of equal political rights to all the people without discrimination. The Constitution of India provides for a liberal democracy in which all the people have the right and freedom to participate.
Liberty means The idea of Liberty refers to the freedom on the activities of Indian citizens in term of what they think, their manner of expressions and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action. However, liberty does not mean freedom to do anything, and it must be exercised within the constitutional limits.
Equality envisages that no section of the society enjoys special privileges and individuals are provided with adequate opportunities without any discrimination: all are equal before the law.
Fraternity refers to a feeling of brotherhood and a sense of belonging with the country among its people. It leaves no room for regionalism, communalism, casteism etc., which hinders the Unity of the State.
The Preamble declares that fraternity has to assure two things—the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. 

TOP TWENTY AMMENDMENTS OF THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION


The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles embody
the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress (Article One); the executive, consisting of the President (Article Two); and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts (Article Three). Articles Four, Five and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, and the shared process of constitutional amendment. Since the Constitution came into force in 1789, it has been amended 27 times. Thirty-three amendments to the United States Constitution have been proposed by the United States Congress and sent to the states for ratification since the Constitution was put into operation on March 4, 1789. Twenty-seven out of these, having been ratified by the requisite number of states, are part of the Constitution. these are

1st Prohibits Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the right to petition the government September 25, 1789

2nd Protects the right to keep and bear arms September 25, 1789

3rd Places restrictions on the quartering of soldiers in private homes September 25, 1789

4th Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable cause September 25, 1789

5th Sets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domain, protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy September 25, 1789

6th Protects the right to a fair and speedy public trial by jury, including the rights to be notified of the accusations, to confront the accuser, to obtain witnesses and to retain counsel September 25, 1789

7th Provides for the right to trial by jury in certain civil cases, according to common law September 25, 1789

8th Prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment September 25, 1789

9th Protects rights not enumerated in the Constitution September 25, 1789

10th Reinforces the principle of federalism by stating that the federal government possesses only those powers delegated to it by the states or the people through the Constitution September 25, 1789

11th Makes states immune from suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state borders; lays the foundation for sovereign immunity March 4, 1794

12th Revises presidential election procedures by having the president and vice president elected together as opposed to the vice president being the runner up in the presidential election December 9, 1803

13th Abolishes slavery, and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime January 31, 1865

14th Defines citizenship, contains the Privileges or Immunities Clause, the Due Process Clause, the Equal Protection Clause, and deals with post–Civil War issues June 13, 1866

15th Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on race, color or previous condition of servitude February 26, 1869

16th Permits Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the various states or basing it on the United States Census July 12, 1909

17th Establishes the direct election of United States Senators by popular vote May 13, 1912

18th Prohibited the manufacturing or sale of alcohol within the United States
(Repealed December 5, 1933, via the 21st Amendment) December 18, 1917

19th Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on sex June 4, 1919

20th Changes the date on which the terms of the president and vice president and of members of Congress end and begin (to January 20 and January 3 respectively) March 2, 1932

KNOW THE HISTORY MAKING OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION





The Constitution of India is the longest Constitution in the world after Alabama Constitution.
The Constitution of India is the highest top most law of India. The Constitution of India
framework define fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, duties of government institutions and fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. The Constitution of India is the world's longest written constitution. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was the chairman of the drafting committe. it was created by a constituent assembly rather than Parliament. Parliament cannot override the constitution. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950. the Dominion of India became the sovereign democratic  republic of India. India celebrates its constitution effective day on 26 January as Republic Day. The constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular country and assuring its citizens justice, equality and liberty, and efforts to promote fraternity. its framers borrowed features of previous legislation such as the Government of India Act 1858, the Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892 and 1909, the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935, and the Indian Independence Act 1947. The constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected by elected 389 members of the provincial assemblies. The first, two-day president of the assembly was Sachchidananda Sinha then after two days  Rajendra Prasad was elected president. Benegal Narsing Rau, a civil servant who became the first Indian judge in the International Court of Justice and was president of the United Nations Security Council, was appointed as the assembly's constitutional adviser in 1946. Rau prepared its initial draft. At 14 August 1947 meeting of the assembly proposed a drafting  committees and on 29 August 1947 drafting  committee appointed  with eight members dr. B. R. Ambedkar as chairperson. Rau's draft was considered, debated and amended by the drafting  committee and  revised draft constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the assembly on 4 November 1947. While debate on the revised draft constitution, the assembly


changed 2,473 amendments out of total 7,635 amendments. Before adopting the constitution, the assembly arranged eleven sessions in 165 days for the review of the constitution. On 26 November 1949 it adopted the constitution, which was signed by 284 members. 26 November is celebrated as National Law Day, or Constitution Day. The assembly's final session convened on 24 January 1950. Each member signed two copies of the constitution, one in Hindi and the other in English. The original constitution is hand-written, with each page decorated by artists from Shantiniketan including Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose. Its calligrapher was Prem Behari Narain Raizada. The constitution was published in Dehradun and photolithographed by the Survey of India. Production of the original constitution took nearly five years. Two days later, on 26 January 1950, it became the law of India. The estimated cost of the Constituent Assembly was ₹63 Million . The original 1950 constitution is preserved in a helium-filled case at the Parliament House in New Delhi.

The following Articles is taken from other countries constitutions

from United Kingdom -

Parliamentary government
Concept of single citizenship
Rule of law
The legislative speaker and their role
Legislative procedure
From United States -
Bill of Rights
Federal structure of government
Electoral College
Independent judiciary and separation of powers
Judicial review
President as commander-in-chief of the armed forces
Equal protection under law
From Ireland
Directive principles of state policy
From Australia
Freedom of trade between states
National legislative power to implement treaties, even on matters outside normal federal jurisdiction
Concurrent List
Preamble terminology
From France
Ideals of liberte, egalite, fraternite
From Canada
Quasi-federal government — a federal system with a strong central government
Distribution of powers between the central and state governments
Residual powers, retained by the central government
From Soviet Union
Fundamental Duties under article 51-A
Mandated planning commission to oversee economic development
From Other constitutions
The emergency provision under article 356 (from the Weimar Constitution)
Amending the constitution (from South Africa)
Due process (from Japan)
The Indian constitution is the world's longest for a sovereign nation. At the start it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. now it has a preamble and 448 articles, which are grouped into 25 parts. With 12 schedules  and five appendices, it has been amended  till now 101 times latest amendment became effective on 1 July 2017.
The constitution's articles are grouped into the following parts:

Preamble, with the words "socialist" and "secular", and 'integrity' added in 1976 by the 42nd amendment
Part I – States and union territories
Part II – Citizenship
Part III – Fundamental Rights
Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy
Part IVA – Fundamental Duties
Part V – The union
Part VI – The states
Part VII – States in the B part of the first schedule (repealed)
Part VIII – Union territories
Part IX – Panchayats
Part IXA – Municipalities
Part IXB – Co-operative societies
Part X – Scheduled and tribal areas
Part XI – Relations between the union and the states
Part XII – Finance, property, contracts and suits
Part XIII – Trade and commerce within India
Part XIV – Services under the union and states
Part XIVA – Tribunals
Part XV – Elections
Part XVI – Special provisions relating to certain classes
Part XVII – Languages
Part XVIII – Emergency provisions
Part XIX – Miscellaneous
Part XX – Amending the constitution
Part XXI – Temporary, transitional and special provisions
Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals
Schedules are lists in the constitution which categorise and tabulate bureaucratic activity and government policy.
First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4) – Lists India's states and territories, changes in their borders and the laws used to make that change.
Second Schedule (Articles 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221) – Lists the salaries of public officials, judges, and the Comptroller and Auditor General.
Third Schedule (Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219) – Forms of oaths – Lists the oaths of office for elected officials and judges.
Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80(2)) – Details the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (upper house of Parliament) by state or union territory.
Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1)) – Provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (areas and tribes requiring special protection).
Sixth Schedule (Articles 244(2) and 275(1)) – Provisions made for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.
Seventh Schedule (Article 246) — Central government, state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities
Eighth Schedule (Articles 344(1) and 351) – Official languages
Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) – Validation of certain acts and regulations
Tenth Schedule (Articles 102(2) and 191(2)) – Anti-defection provisions for members of Parliament and state legislatures.
Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G) —Panchayat Raj (rural local government)
Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W) — Municipalities (urban local government)
Appendices
Appendix I – The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954
Appendix II – Re-statement, referring to the constitution's present text, of exceptions and modifications applicable to the state of Jammu and Kashmir
Appendix III – Extracts from the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978
Appendix IV – The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002
Appendix V – The Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003
The executive, legislative and judicial branches of government receive their power from the constitution and are bound by it. India is governed by a parliamentary system of government with the executive directly accountable to the legislature. The President of India is head of the executive, under Articles 52 and 53, with the duty of preserving, protecting and defending the constitution and the law under Article 60. Article 74 provides for a Prime Minister as head of the Council of Ministers, which aids and advises the president in the performance of their constitutional duties. The council is answerable to the lower house under Article 75(3).
The constitution is considered federal in nature, and unitary in spirit. It has features of a federation (a codified, supreme constitution, a three-tier governmental structure [central, state and local], division of powers, bicameralism and an independent judiciary) and unitary features such as a single constitution, single citizenship, an integrated judiciary, a flexible constitution, a strong central government, appointment of state governors by the central government, All India Services (the IAS, IFS and IPS) and emergency provisions. This unique combination makes it quasi-federal in form. Each state and union territory has its own government. Analogous to the president and prime minister, each has a governor or (in union territories) a lieutenant governor and a chief minister. Article 356 permits the president to dismiss a state government and assume direct authority if a situation arises in which state government cannot be conducted in accordance with constitution. This power, known as president's rule, The 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts introduced the system of panchayati raj in rural areas and Nagar Palikas in urban areas. Article 370 gives special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. 
Amendments are additions, variations or repeal of any part of the constitution by Parliament. The procedure is detailed in Article 368. An amendment bill must be passed by each house of Parliament by a two-thirds majority of its members. Certain amendments pertaining to the constitution's federal nature must also be ratified by a majority of state legislatures. Unlike ordinary bills in accordance with Article 245 (except for money bills), there is no provision for a joint session of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha to pass a constitutional amendment. 
By July 2018, 124 amendment bills had been presented in Parliament; out of these, 101 became Amendment Acts. 
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Know The United States President Role, Responsibility and Salary


Top Fifty (50) Cities of United States of America (USA)

Rank        Cities         population 
1           New York 

Poverty Analysis in U.S.A.

Poverty is a situation of deprivation, in which there is a lack of general or socially acceptable amount or physical properties. In U.S.  poverty is measured by the "poverty line" set by the US government. This measure mainly recognizes poverty as the shortage of goods and services given to the members of mainstream society. Using the Consumer Price Index, the official threshold for inflation is adjusted.

Most Americans will have to spend at least one year in his life below poverty line at the age between 25 to 75 years.  Compared to suburban areas, poverty rates in the rural and interior parts of the country are continuously high.
In 2015, 13.5% of Americans (43.1 million)
 living below poverty line has been estimated by an organization,  Still other scholars underscore the number of Americans living in "near poverty", which holds the number 100 million, which is the third part of the US population. Starting from the 1930s, the related poverty rate has consistently exceeded. New Hampshire, Vermont, Minnesota and Nebraska have the lowest poverty rate, which is 8.7% and 9.1% of their population living in poverty.

In 2009, the number of people living in poverty was reaching the level of 1960, and there was a national war on poverty.  Extreme poverty in the United States in 2011, which means doubling at 1.56 million households, including 2.8 million children living in government households less than 2 dollars per day,

In 2012, the percentage of senior citizens living in poverty was 14% and 18% were children.  In addition to social security benefits, and contributed to reducing poverty compared to any other factor.

Recent census data shows that half of the population qualifies as poor or low income with one of the five million living in poverty. Academic contributors in the Routledge Handbook of Poverty in the United States said that as a result of neoliberal structural adjustment policies and globalization, new and extreme forms of poverty have emerged in the US, which provide financially marginalized communities with the necessary "surplus population"

In 2011, the Child Poverty Record reached a high level, in which 16.7 million children lived in insecure families, 35% more than the level of 2007.  A 2013 UNICEF report says the U.S. In the developed world, second most relative child in the form of poverty rates. According to a 2016 study by the Urban Institute, teenagers with low income are often forced to join gangs, save school lunches, sell drugs, or exchange sexual partners.

In January 2009, there were about 643,000 refugee and helpless homeless people. Approximately 1.56 million people, or approximately 0.5% of the American population, used an emergency shelter or a transitional housing program between October 1, 2008 and September 30, 2009. About 44% homeless people are employed.  By 2018, most of the US citizens living in their vehicles because they can not find affordable housing, especially in Los Angeles, Portland, Oregon and San Francisco, where there is a huge increase in the cost of living.

In June 2016, the IMF warned the United States that urging the United States to increase the minimum wage  In December 2017, United Nations Special Representative on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights, Philip Aston examined the effect of systematic poverty in the United States Alston's report was released in May 2018 and it has been highlighted that 40 million people live in poverty and  more than five million live in "third world" situations. "