TOP TWENTY AMMENDMENTS OF THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION




The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles embody
the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress (Article One); the executive, consisting of the President (Article Two); and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts (Article Three). Articles Four, Five and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, and the shared process of constitutional amendment. Since the Constitution came into force in 1789, it has been amended 27 times. Thirty-three amendments to the United States Constitution have been proposed by the United States Congress and sent to the states for ratification since the Constitution was put into operation on March 4, 1789. Twenty-seven out of these, having been ratified by the requisite number of states, are part of the Constitution. these are

1st Prohibits Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the right to petition the government September 25, 1789

2nd Protects the right to keep and bear arms September 25, 1789

3rd Places restrictions on the quartering of soldiers in private homes September 25, 1789

4th Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable cause September 25, 1789

5th Sets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domain, protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy September 25, 1789

6th Protects the right to a fair and speedy public trial by jury, including the rights to be notified of the accusations, to confront the accuser, to obtain witnesses and to retain counsel September 25, 1789

7th Provides for the right to trial by jury in certain civil cases, according to common law September 25, 1789

8th Prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment September 25, 1789

9th Protects rights not enumerated in the Constitution September 25, 1789

10th Reinforces the principle of federalism by stating that the federal government possesses only those powers delegated to it by the states or the people through the Constitution September 25, 1789

11th Makes states immune from suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state borders; lays the foundation for sovereign immunity March 4, 1794

12th Revises presidential election procedures by having the president and vice president elected together as opposed to the vice president being the runner up in the presidential election December 9, 1803

13th Abolishes slavery, and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime January 31, 1865

14th Defines citizenship, contains the Privileges or Immunities Clause, the Due Process Clause, the Equal Protection Clause, and deals with post–Civil War issues June 13, 1866

15th Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on race, color or previous condition of servitude February 26, 1869

16th Permits Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the various states or basing it on the United States Census July 12, 1909

17th Establishes the direct election of United States Senators by popular vote May 13, 1912

18th Prohibited the manufacturing or sale of alcohol within the United States
(Repealed December 5, 1933, via the 21st Amendment) December 18, 1917

19th Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on sex June 4, 1919

20th Changes the date on which the terms of the president and vice president and of members of Congress end and begin (to January 20 and January 3 respectively) March 2, 1932


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